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Start Date:

May 7 2019

End Date:

May 31 2019

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Bacterial Toxins for Research

Our company has always focused on quality bacterial toxins, which you can depend on for your research. Because toxins have been the basis for many vaccines, List Labs products have supported vaccine development. List Labs was the first to commercialize many bacterial toxins for research, including C.difficile toxins and pertussis toxin. Today, we remain uniquely focused on manufacturing, offering and supporting a wide range of bacterial products.

#100B Cholera Toxin (AZIDE-FREE) from Vibrio Cholerae

Produced by Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin (CT) is a multimeric enterotoxin that transfers ADP-ribose to a G protein, locking adenylate cyclase in an 'on' position.

How does Cholera Toxin cause diarrhea? By binding to the membrane of enteric cells, cholera toxin stimulates the cellular adenylate cyclase system, causing the hyper-secretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, which results in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of the disease cholera. The pentameric B subunit of CT binds with high efficiency to GM1 monosialoganglioside cell membrane receptors, present in many cell types, allowing its use experimentally in cell culture. Following binding, the toxin is endocytosed and travels retrogradely to the endoplasmic reticulum where the enzymatically active A subunit (CTA1) is translocated to the cytosol. Within the cytosol, CTA1 catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of the Gs protein, which activates adenylate cyclase and as a consequence increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP.

#155A Toxin B from Clostridium Difficile

A major nosocomial pathogen, Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated colitis and intestinal Inflammatory disease, together called CDI.

How does C Difficile Toxin cause diarrhea? By releasing two large protein enterotoxins, C difficile Toxin A (TcdA) and C difficile Toxin B (TcdB), Clostridium difficile mediates inflammatory diarrhea and compromises intestinal epithelial cells. Either toxin when administered to cultured cells disrupts the cytoskeleton and sets off capsase-dependent apoptosis, although, C difficile Toxin B is many times more potent than C difficile Toxin A. Both toxins also activate intestinal epithelial and immune cells to produce cytokines and chemokines, likely contributing to the complications associated with severe CDI. Intracellular targets of TcdA and TcdB are RhoGTPases which regulate many host cell processes including establishing an epithelial barrier and the migration and signaling of immune cells. When the Rho proteins are glycosylated by C difficile Toxins A or B, signaling is disrupted leading to the intestinal damage and inflamation characteristic of CDI.

#180 Pertussis Toxin from B. pertussis, Lyophilized in Buffer

Bordetella pertussis virulence factors offered by List Labs include Pertussis Toxin, Pertussis Toxin Subunits, Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA), Fimbriae 2/3, Pertactin (69 kDa protein), Adenylate Cyclase Antigen and B. pertussis Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), all derived from native B. pertussis. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) is prepared as an active enzyme from E. coli. A genetically inactive mutant of pertussis toxin (PT mutant) is made in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

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